Random numbers are essential in many fields including cryptography, fundamental tests of physics, coordination in computer networks, and scientific simulations. These applications rely on the unpredictability of random numbers, which cannot be guaranteed when using classical techniques. In comparison, quantum mechanical systems can be prepared in a superposition of states, and the outcome of a measurement of this state can be intrinsically random. Therefore, the inherently random nature of quantum measurements can be exploited to generate truly random numbers.
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